Climate change is back on the agenda with a global climate conference kicking off Monday in the German city of Bonn.
Who is coming, what are the key debates about and how green will this huge meeting be? Here are five things to know about the U.N. Climate Change Conference 2017, which runs from Nov. 6-17.
WHO IS COMING TO BONN?
Up to 25,000 people are expected to attend the talks, which will be presided over by Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama of Fiji — the first time that a small island nation will be at the helm of a major international climate conference. Participants will include diplomats from 195 nations, as well as scientists, lobbyists and environmentalists.
The United States, which has announced it is pulling out of the landmark Paris climate accord, will be represented by Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs Thomas Shannon.
Other key countries at the talks are emerging economic powers China and India. Estonia, Peru, Ecuador, Iran, Mali, Ethiopia and the Maldives will also be in the spotlight for leading major international groupings.
French President Emmanuel Macron, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and other leaders are expected to go to Bonn to give the talks a final push at the end and signal their commitment to fighting climate change.
WHAT ARE THE BIG CLIMATE CHANGE TOPICS NOW?
The 2015 Paris accord set a target of limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) — or 2 degrees C at the most — by the end of the century.
But diplomats didn’t agree on exactly how their nations will reach that ambitious goal. The Bonn talks will flesh out the rule book that countries have to abide by.
This includes coming up with international standards for how to measure carbon emissions so one nation’s efforts can be compare to another’s. A second debate centers around how countries take stock of what’s been achieved and set new, more ambitious goals for curbing carbon emissions after 2020.
The third big issue concerns money. Experts agree that shifting economies away from fossil fuels and preparing for the inevitable consequences of climate change will require vast financial resources — including some from the Donald Trump’s U.S. administration, which is wary about climate change.
Organizing a massive global conference in Fiji would have strained the Pacific nation’s resources and posed a travel nightmare for thousands of delegates. Germany offered to host the talks in Bonn, the country’s former capital, because it has ample conference space and is already home to the U.N. climate change agency. Still, delegates are going to miss the sunshine of Fiji. The weather in Bonn is generally dreary at best in November.
HOW GREEN WILL THE CONFERENCE BE?
Germany says the two-week talks will as environmentally friendly as possible. The country is setting aside part of the 117 million euro ($136.3 million) budget for a fleet of bicycles and electric buses to ferry people between venues. Each participant will receive a bottle to fill with tap water — a move organizers say will save half a million plastic cups.
Germany’s environment ministry is also investing in renewable energy projects to compensate for the greenhouse gas emissions caused by people from all over flying into Bonn for the talks.
AND WHAT ABOUT GERMANY’S COAL USAGE?
Germany likes to portray itself as a leader in the fight against global warming and Merkel’s reputation as the “climate chancellor” is partly built on the pivotal role she has played during past negotiations.
But environmentalists note that Germany still gets about 40 percent of its electricity from coal-fired plants — one of the most carbon-intensive sources of energy. And German highways are also virtually unique in having no general speed limit, despite the fact that auto emissions rise dramatically at higher speeds.
If prosperous Germany fails to meet its own emissions targets, as current predictions suggest, critics say that would send the wrong signal to the rest of the world.